www.daffodilproject.org  Dynamic Assessment of Functioning and Coaching of Children Oriented at Development & Inclusive Learning


With a different glance
Dynamic Assessment and Functioning of Children Oriented at Development & Inclusive Learning


Jo Lebeer, Adelinda Candeias & Maria Luísa Grácio (Editors)


Despite international developments towards inclusion, many children are excluded and deprived of adequate education, because of an impairment and or functional difficulties: there is not enough support, teachers lack knowledge how to include different children, and assessment reports are rarely suitable for inclusive teaching.  Current functional assessment is too much deficiency oriented and tends toblame’ the child. If schools have to become inclusive schools for all’, as is laid down in the UN Convention on the Rights of People with disabilities, then the assessment & coaching system needs a thorough reform. This book wants to propose some alternatives: next to finding out about a child’s functional difficulties, assessment methods also need to look at a child’s learning potential, responsiveness to teaching, and learning context (teachers, parents). The objective of assessment should be to adequately plan and monitor a challenging educational intervention, allowing the child to be maximally included-.

Models of “good practice” have been collected within the context of the European Comenius DAFFODIL project. The accompanying DVD features sample videos of dynamic assessment, inclusive education, counselling for inclusive education, as well as articles and presentations. 

The book wants to make school psychologists and other assessors of special needs, aware of the need and possibility to look at children with a different glance: in a more inclusion-oriented and development- oriented way.


Jo Lebeer is associate professor of disability studies at the University of Antwerp, Belgium. Adelinda Candeias  and Luisa Grácio are professors of educational psychology at the University of Evora, Portugal.

Order at Garant Publishers www.garant.be

Antwerpen – Apeldoorn 2011

211 p. – 24 cm – +  DVD containing 5 videos and 110 texts & presentations  34 €


ISBN 978-90-441-2802-4

DVD production: Zoltan & Krisztina Bohacs.

© The authors & Garant-Publishers n.v.


This project has been funded with support from the European Commission, Life Long Learning Programme. This document reflects the views of the authors only, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.




Foreword                Raphael S. & Reuven Feuerstein         

Introduction            Jo Lebeer, Adelinda A. Candeias & Luisa Grácio


Part I    Current Assessment Practices Re-assessed in Partner Countries:Weaknesses, Strengths and Needs

Chapter 1                Problematic issues in assessment

Jo Lebeer, Noémi Birta-Székely, Karmen Demeter, Petri Partanen, Krisztina Bohács, Lorna Dawson, Reka Orban, Gunvor Sønnesyn

Chapter 2                Organisation and legislation of special needs education in the Partner Countries

Jo Lebeer, Noémi Birta-Székely, Karmen Demeter, Petri Partanen, Adelinda A. Candeias, Krisztina Bohács, Lorna Dawson, Reka Orban, Gunvor Sønnesyn

Chapter 3                Organisation of assessment in Partner Countries

Jo Lebeer, Noémi Birta-Székely, Karmen Demeter, Petri Partanen, Ana-Cristina Rosário, Krisztina Bohács, Lorna Dawson, Reka Orban, Gunvor Sønnesyn

Chapter 4                Tests and instruments currently used

Noémi Birta-Székely, Karmen Demeter, Jo Lebeer, Petri Partanen, Adelinda A. Candeias, Monica Rebocho, Ana-Cristina Rosário, Krisztina Bohács, Lorna Dawson, Reka Orban, Gunvor Sønnesyn

Chapter 5                Critical reflections and suggestions for change

Jo Lebeer, Noémi Birta-Székely, Karmen Demeter, Petri Partanen, Adelinda A. Candeias, Krisztina Bohács, Lorna Dawson, Gunvor Sønnesyn

Part II      Innovative functional and dynamic assessment methods

Chapter 6                Dynamic Assessment of learning processes: Feuerstein’s LPAD model            Jo Lebeer

Chapter 7                The Cognitive Assessment System – suitable as a tool for inclusion?              Gunvor Sønnesyn  & Jack A. Naglieri

Chapter 8                The introduction of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) in Education in Portugal. Consequences for assessment and intervention. Adelinda Araujo Candeias, Maria José Saragoça, Luísa Grácio

Part III     From Assessment to Inclusive Coaching

Chapter 9                From action- and needs-based assessment” to ”action- and needs-based cooperation”

Miek Audenaert, Anneleen Denys & Hugo Van de Veire

Chapter 10              Educational assessment as a learning process   Petri Partanen


Chapter 11              Constructing inclusive coaching            Beno Schraepen

Chapter 12              Conceptual change in school based psychological consultation         Ingrid Hylander

Chapter 13              The optimal integration of the chronically ill child in mainstream  schools: a shared concern

Inge Van Trimpont & Karel Hoppenbrouwers

Chapter 14              Assessing and consulting challenging behaviour in children with autistic spectrum disorder, Edit Maior

Chapter 15              Mihai’s Story          Cristina Felea

Part IV     Assessing learning within the curriculum

Chapter 16              Dynamic assessment of learning within curricular subjects; mathematical knowledge  Gunvor Sønnesyn

Chapter 17              Dynamic assessment & intervention of learning difficulties based on the PASS Reading Enhancement Programme   Ana Cristina Rosário, Adelinda Araújo Candeias & Vitor Cruz

Chapter 18              Dynamic assessment of students with difficulties in learning and development based on portfolios  Adelinda Araújo Candeias , João Silva, Maria José Saragoça, Mónica Rebocho

Chapter 19              Learning, risk and protective factors: how to assess to intervene 
Maria Luísa Grácio & Adelinda Araujo Candeias

Part V      Conclusions and Guidelines

Chapter 20              Guidelines for a dynamic and functional assessment oriented at development and inclusive learning
Jo Lebeer & Petri Partanen


Contributing authors

Contents of the DVD

1. Video fragments

*        Dynamic Assessment using LPAD –basic (Andor)
Directed by Krisztina Bohács. Production: Medialt Tanulásért Alapítvány Budapest, Hungary

*        Dynamic interactive assessment illustrating Feuerstein’s Learning Propensity Assessment Device at the Summer School in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, July 2010
Directed by Ami Shitrit, International Centre for the Enhancement of Learning Potential (Feuerstein Institute), Jerusalem. Production: Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

*        A Consultation model for inclusive education in Sweden. Directed by Petri Partanen. Production: Elevhälsen, Ostersund, Sweden. 

*        Inclusive education in Portugal. Directed by Luisa Grácio. Production: University of Evora, Centre for Research of psychology and education.

*        The Mind of a Child. Trailer of the documentary The Mind of a Child, directed by Gary Marcuse. Production: Face to Face Media, Vancouver, Canada. Courtesy of Face to Face Media

2         Documents

General presentations

*        DAFFODIL project overview. A presentation at the Evora Summer School September 2010

*        Daffodil Leaflets (English, Portuguese, Dutch, Hungarian, Romanian, Swedish, French)

*        Daffodil partner presentations: who are the partners and what do they do?

*        Report of the DAFFODIL project to the European Commission. Public part

Current Assessment Re-assessed. Workpackage 2 results

*        Assessment Reassessed. Current Assessment Practice in Europe. Full Report (Jo Lebeer, Noémi Birta-Szekely & Karmen Demeter, editors).

*        La mise en oeuvre de la CIF dans le Système Éducatif Portugais: Étude de cas réalisée dans trois écoles de la Région Alentejo (Adelinda Candeias, Ana Cristina Rosário & Olga Rocha)

*        Desafios à avaliação e intervenção educativa : Reflexões sobre a experiência de implementação da CIF em Portugal. (Adelinda Candeias, Ana Cristina Rosário, Maria José Saragoça, Mónica Rebocho, Gertrudes Pastor, Júlio Coincas e Maria João Cortes, Olga Rocha)

*        Identifying Special Educational Needs in Flanders. Putting a new learning support framework to the test. A presentation at the Conference of the European Union for School and University Health and Medicine in Leiden, september 2009 (Jo Lebeer, Elke Struyf, Sven De Maeyer, Marijke Wilssens et al.)

*        Current assessment re-assessed. Country reports from Belgium, Hungary, Portugal, Sweden and Norway. Articles and presentations.

*        Re-assessing the Current Assessment Practice of  Children with Special Education Needs (Lebeer, J., Birta-Szekely, N., Demeter, K., Bohács, K., Candeias, A.A., Sønnesyn , G., Partanen, P., Dawson, L.). Article, summarizing the full report,  published in School Psychology International (Sage Publications), april 2011

Innovative Dynamic, Functional and Contextual Assessment procedures. Workpackage 3 results

*        Good Practices in dynamic and Contextual Assessment of Children with Special Needs. Report of the Daffodil partners’ meeting 29/11-03/12/2009 hosted by the University of Szeged

*        Two sides of the coin. Teaching and assessment as part of a strategy of concept teaching. Some educational implications. Presentation (Andreas Hansen)

*        Curriculum based dynamic assessment of mathematics. Presentation (Gunvor Sønnesyn)

*        Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System. Presentation (Morten He & Gunvor Sønnesyn)

*        Presentation of a preliminary version regarding (I) assessment of Basic Conceptual Systems, and (II) Ability to Abstract in terms of analytic coding – for 6-13 yr olds. Presentation (Andreas Hansen)

*        A first version of the Concept and Abstraction screening test 6-13, its theoretical basis and possible educational implications. Article (Andreas Hansen)

*        Dynamic Assessment using Feuerstein's. LPAD: a new paradigm in inclusive assessment. Presentation  (Jo Lebeer)

*        Dynamic Assessment using Feuerstein's. LPAD: a new paradigm in inclusive assessment. Article  (Jo Lebeer)

*        Action-oriented and Needs-based Assessment. Presentation (Hugo Van de Veire)

*        The optimal integration of the chronically ill child using the ICF. Presentation (Inge Van Trimpont)

*        Paradigms and Practices of Dynamic Assessment. Presentation (Krisztina Bohács)

*        ‘A dinamikus értékelés’ – közlésre elfogadott tanulmány, Magyar Pedagógia, a Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Pedagógiai Bizottságának folyóirata (Krisztina Bohács)

*        Assessing Social Intelligence with System of Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Test (SIP). Presentation ( A.A. Candeias, M. Oliveira, F. Koich Miguel, A. Rocha & G. Franco)

*        Convergent/divergent validity between social intelligence, emotional intelligence, social competence and abstract intelligence. Presentation (A.A. Candeias, M. Oliveira & G. Franco)

*        Consultation, coaching and conceptual change. Workshop (Petri Partanen)

Inclusive Consultation. Workpackage 4 results

*        From Assessment to Intervention for Inclusion. Report of the Daffodil Winter Conference Ostersund February 2010. Partners Meeting Report (Jo Lebeer)

*        Daffodil Project Introduction to the Ostersund Meeting. Presentation (Jo Lebeer)

*        Consultation & Assessment in a Swedish Context. Presentation (Petri Partanen)

*        Concept Teaching Facilitates Inclusion. Presentation (Andreas Hansen)

*        Preparing children to read by the PASS Reading Enhancement Programme (PREP). Presentation. (A.C. Rosário & Vitor Cruz)

*        From Dynamic Assessment to Inclusive Intervention. Presentation (Jo Lebeer)

*        Constructing inclusive coaching. Presentation (Beno Schraepen)

*        Conceptual Change in Consultation and Assessment. Presentation (Inge Hylander)

*        From Assesment to Inclusive Intervention in Transylvania. Presentation (R. Orban, E.Maior, K. Demeter)

*        Implemetation of the Action-oriented & Needs-based Assessment Model in Flanders. Presentation (Tom Walgraeve)

*        Guidelines for a Dynamic and Functional Assessment oriented at development and inclusive learning.  Consensus version (Jo Lebeer & Petri Partanen, editors)

*        Richtlijnen voor een dynamische en functionele assessment gericht op ontwikkeling en inclusief leren. Daffodil Guidelines Dutch translation

*        De Index voor Inclusie  en het nieuwe leerzorgkader. Presentation (Jo Lebeer)

Dynamic and Functional Assessment for Inclusive Learning Evora Summer School. Workpackage 5 results

*        Abstract book Summer Course  DAFFODIL - Innovative Assessment of Functioning Oriented at Development and Inclusive Learning Evora (PT) 5-11 September 2010

*        Reframing Challenging Behaviour . Presentation (Beno Schraepen)

*        Challinging Behaviour in Children with Autism. Presentation (Edith Maior)

*        Assessing Prerequisites of Learning. Presentation (Gunvor Sønnesyn)

*        Learning Compentencies and differentiated assessment. Presentation (Luisa Grácio, Helena Palma, Mónica Rebocho & João Silva)

*        Self-assessment of competencies and inclusive process. Presentation (Luisa Grácio, Helena Palma, Mónica Rebocho & João Silva)

*        ICF introduction. Presentation (Jo Lebeer)

*        ICF beginners’ guide (World Health Organisation)

*        ICF Checklist (World Health Organisation)

*        Individual Educational Programming based on ICF (Portuguese Ministry of Education)

*        ICF Assessment Process Planning in Portugal. Presentation (M.J. Saragoça)

*        ICF Assessment Roadmap example John (M.J. Saragoça)

*        ICF based technical pedagogical report in Portugal M.J. Saragoça)

*        Referral Form for special needs assessment in Portugal (Portuguese Ministry of Education . tranl.by MJ Saragoça)

*        Inclusive Education Conceptual Paper UNESCO (Tony Booth)

*        Index for Inclusion Summary. Article (Mark Vaughan)

*        Portfolios as an Assessment Tool of Learning and Competences from Students with SEN (Adelinda Araújo Candeias, João Silva, Maria José Saragoça, Mónica Rebocho)

*        O uso de portfolio na formaçao de profesores para a avaliaçao inclusiva. Article (A.Candeias, J.Silva, A.C. Rosário, L. Grácio, M. Rebocho, M.J. Saragoça)

Pilot projects in inclusive education & assessment. Workpackage 6 results

*        Um Viveiro na Escola. Inclusive education in Portugal. M.J. Saragoça. Presentation

*        Inclusive education and good diagnostic systems – how to plan individual education projects. J.Lebeer. Presentation

*        Integrated Assessment & Inclusion Coaching Service. Preliminary report on initiatives and pilot projects on implementation of a service and of training in the partners countries

Daffodil presentations at Dissemination initiatives. Workpackage 7 results

*        Daffodil Newsletter 9 July 2009

*        Daffodil Newsletter 10 November 2009

*        Daffodil Newsletter December 2010

*        Anders kijken naar kinderen met DAFFODIL. Abstract of workshop at the conference “De kracht van…” 1-3/10/2009, Almere, NL (Jo Lebeer)

*        Applying Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment-Basic programme with special needs children. Presentation at the conference of the International Association of Cognitive Education & Psychology, Osnabrück, july 2009 (Kozulin, A., Lebeer, J., Madella-Noja, A, Dornini C.)

*        Cognitive and behavioural modifiability using Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment-Basic programme. Presentation at the conference of the European Academy of Childhood Disability, Vilnius, June 2009 (Lebeer, J., Kozulin, A., Madella-Noja, A., Gonzalez, F., Jeffrey, I., Rosenthal, N., Koslowsky, M.)

*        Desafios à Avaliação e Intervenção Educativa: Reflexões sobre a experiência de Implementação da CIF em Portugal. Presentation (Adelinda Candeias, Ana Cristina do Rosário, Maria José Saragoça, Mónica Rebocho, Gertrudes Pastor, Júlio Coincas, Maria João Cortes e Olga Rocha)

*        Discriminative validity between Social Intelligence, Social Competence, Emotional Intelligence and Abstract Intelligence – A study with Portuguese children. Article (A. A. Candeias, M. Oliveira & G. Franco)

*        L’intervento (ri)abilitativo con l’attivazione cognitiva e l’esperienza di apprendimento mediato. Presentation at the conference “Imparare ad imparare”, University of Bologna 16/10/2009 (Jo Lebeer)

*        Classification internationale du fonctionnement, du handicap et de la santé au Portugal. Presentation at the conference in Lausanne, CH, sept 2010 (A.Candeias, MJ Saragoça)

*        Current Assessment Practice of Children with Special Education Needs in Europe: weaknesses, strengths and needs, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, vol. 52, supplement 4, 57 (abstract presented at the International Conference of the European Academy of Childhood Disability, Brussels, 26-29th May 2010) (Lebeer, J., Birta-Szekely, N., Demeter, K.Bohacs, K., Partanen, P., Sonnesyn, G., Candeias, A. & Dawson, L.)

*        Daffodil project presentation at the conference “Pathways to Inclusion”, Brussels, 27/1/2011 (Jo Lebeer)

*        Daffodil project presentation at the International Summer School in Cluj-Napoca, july 2010 (Jo Lebeer)

*        Assessment as an issue in identitity. Dynamic and functional assessment for a developmental and  inclusive perspective. Abstract of presentation at the International Conference: 'Diversity in Quality of Life', December 2-4 2010, VU University, Amsterdam (Jo  Lebeer,  Petri Partanen, Krisztina Bohács, Gunvor  Sonnesyn, G., Adelinda A. Candeias, Luisa Grácio, Karmen Demeter, Thomas Alexander  & Lorna Dawson)

*        Daffodil project presentation at the conference of the DIVA project “Good Practice for Dissemination and Valorization of Educational Projects”, Gent, 21-22/10/2010 (Jo Lebeer)

*        A New DAFFODIL Model of Integrated Assessment & Intervention. Good Practices in Dynamic and Contextual Assessment of Children with Special Needs. Gent 16/9/2010 (Jo Lebeer)

*        Illustrative Case Study of Inclusion. Presentation (Krisztina Bohacs & Edit Tóth)

*        Assessment met het oog op de arbeidsmarkt (inclusief vs. Exclusief assessment). Presentation in Dutch at the conference of Open Therapeuticum Leuven, november 2010